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托福听力备考:听力考试跨学科备考建议汇总

2017-12-15 14:54      来源:中国网      作者:     分享 分享到搜狐微博 分享到网易微博

  原标题:托福听力跨学科备考建议(二)

  跨学科备考

  从考生角度来说,其实也可以换种角度来反思,也就是在托福备考中,是否也可以运用一下跨学科备考,想必是可以的。在托福听力的备考中,同时也可以思考一下听力和其他学科之间的关系。

  在托福听力中,经常会考得到实验研究的内容,小细节可能是考到实验研究的结果,也有可能考到老师对于实验研究的态度等等,当然,也有部分情况下是考查实验研究的过程。结合这部分的内容,考生可以再审视一下口语第六题。

  我们来看一个真题,TPO25口语task6的听力材料内容

  Rocks near the Earth’s surface are directly exposed to elements in the environment such as air and water, and also to conditions such as temperature change as well as to living organism. And this exposure to the environment can actually cause even huge rocks to break into smaller pieces. This process is called weathering. Let’s talk about a couple ways weathering occurs.

  First of all, rocks are often exposed to water. In cold wet environments rocks can break due to water freezing inside of them. How does this happen? Well, as I am sure you know, when water freezes it expands and over time this can lead to weathering.

  Um, imagine a rock with a small opening or crack in it. It rains and water gets into the crack and stays there. Then, at night, the temperature drops and water inside the crack freezes. This growing, expanding ice pushes outward on either side of the crack causing it to get slightly bigger. When this happens again and again, the crack becomes larger and eventually pieces of the rock break off.

  OK, weathering can also be caused by plants, by a plant growth. If a plant seed gets blown into the crack of a rock, it may take root. And its root will grow down into the rock. The plant’s roots can cause the rock to break down, uh, fracture. You may have seen this with large trees growing on top of a rock, a great example of this. Usually there’s enough dirt in a crack of a rock or on top of a rock to allow a tree to start growing there. As the tree grows over the years, the tree’s roots extend downward into the crack and crevasses of the rock in search of water and nutrients. Over time, the roots get bigger and grow deeper, widening and enlarging the cracks, causing the rock to break apart.

  首先这段lecture讲了一个process called weathering,然后进行ways论述1. rocks are often exposed to water 2. It rains and water gets into the crack and stays there. Then, at night, the temperature drops and water inside the crack freezes. When this happens again and again, the crack becomes larger and eventually pieces of the rock break off 3.weathering can also be caused by plants As the tree grows over the years, the tree’s roots extend downward into the crack and crevasses of the rock in search of water and nutrients. Over time, the roots get bigger and grow deeper, widening and enlarging the cracks, causing the rock to break apart.

  从备考角度来说,其实大多数学生都是知道“水滴石穿”这个学科知识。在这段话中差不多就是讲了这个水滴石穿的过程。但是要按照口语的答题内容完美的回答还是有些困难的,那么首先需要知道的是geology的一些学科词汇。比如说crack, freeze, crevasse, rock, nutrients这些词。

  从跨学科来讲,这篇看似是地质学的内容选段也出现了生物学部分的植物模块,提到了植物的根部在watering process的作用。考生结合这两个学科一起备考,想必事半功倍。

  再放大一些,这篇口语题目中的内容和听力部分TPO49lecture1中一段话非常相像。

  图文无关

  Ice wedges form when water runs into cracks in the ground, the permafrost, then freezes. You ever see mud after it dries? Dried mud has cracks because when it dries it contracts, it shrinks. Well, in winter permafrost behaves similarly. It shrinks in winter because it freezes even more thoroughly then. And as it shrinks, it forms deep, deep cracks. Then in the summer, when the active layer, the top permafrost then freezes again, because that ground, the ground beneath the active layer is still below freezing. So you have wedges of ice in the permafrost.

  Now, the ice wedges widen the original cracks in the permafrost because water expands when it freezes. All right, okay, then in the autumn, the active layer on top freezes again. Then in winter the permafrost starts contracting again and the cracks open up even wider. So the next summer when the active layer melts again and flows into the widened cracks and freezes, it makes the cracks even wider. So it’s sort of a cycle through which the cracks and the wedges grow wider and wider.

  在这篇文章中,同样讲到了霜冻,同样讲到了裂缝变大变宽。说了这么多主要还是想说明,事实上很多的学科内容都是相互联系的。在准备托福考试的过程中,不管是听说读写哪一门学科,都是有很大联系的,每个学科的任何练习,都要反思一下内容到底是怎么考到的。毕竟TPO的内容考试肯定不会考,但是某个选段和某个学科的部分模块可能会在考试中再次遇到。

  再回头来看一下听力题目。TPO34LECTURE3 Botany第四题

  10. According to the lecture, what can be inferred about a royal water lily whose flowers are red?

  A.Its flowers have already been pollinated.

  B.Beetles are trapped inside of its flowers.

  C.Its flowers will soon increase in temperature.

  D.Its flowers have just closed.

  这个题目其实也是对应不上特殊的题型的,算是一个非题型的考点吧,考察的是一个类似实验研究的过程。

  从原文中看

  Now, there’s a flower in the Amazon rainforest called a royal water lily and the characteristics of its flowers change during the pollination process. The royal water lily uses color, temperature and scent to attract the beetles that pollinate it. When the flowers of the royal water lily first open up, when they first bloom, they are white. They also emit a strong odor and their temperature rises, producing heat serves two purposes. It magnifies the scent of the flower and it helps the beetles maintain their body temperature. When a beetle arrives at the flower, the flower and it helps the beetles maintain their body temperature. When a beetle arrives at the flower, the flower closes around it for about 24 hours so that the beetle becomes covered with pollen. Then when the flower opens, its color changes to red and it cools down. When the beetle flies out, it carries the pollen to a different, heated, white, fragrant flower.

  放到原文中找题目的答案,这就是考到了传粉授粉过程。文章中提到了当water lily传粉结束后花会变色。所以答案应该选择A。

  结合口语task6的内容,常见的布局结构

  In the lecture, the professor discusses/argues/demonstrates ______ in several points/aspects

  First, he says that ______ and he gives an example of___________

  Second, he mentioned that______________

  and he shows some data /researches about

  Finally, he discusses that_____________

  Topic: The professor talks about __________

  Point: The first point he/she raises is______________

  For example…….

  The second point he/she mentions is ______________

  For example……

  放在这篇听力选段中是非常符合的。这段话讲的是pollination process,类似于TPO25口语task6 watering process,观点是The royal water lily uses color, temperature and scent to attract the beetles that pollinate it.然后分别讲了color, temperature and scent在pollination process中是如何进行的过程。

  所以,从这个例子上来看,听力的内容和口语的内容是有一定联系的。在备考听力的过程中,也不要只是简单地把题目做好,考生也可以思考一下是否有些素材可以运用在其他科目中。

  看完这个听力和口语相关的内容举例,再来看看另外一门同样有考查听力的写作部分。其实,在听力备考中,很多老师都会讲到听力的备考考点,事实上,在写作中综合写作的考察部分,也是有很多的考查是类似相关的。比如说,在听力lecture中有一种分类是根据是否有学生的讲话分成monologue和interactive lecture,在听力的题目考察中,学生和老师的一回合讲话就属于一个考点,需要考生引起注意。而在综合写作的lecture听力音频范围内,老师提出的问句,紧接着的自问自答就属于一个要听懂的信息点。诸如此类的也是很多。

  以上,就是考生在备考过程中需要注意的跨学科知识考查,或者其实就是备考的一些方法,在枯燥的无明确的方向性的过程中有一些条理性,更加有针对地练习一些内容,当然,在备考过程中哪怕去了解一些相关学科知识的中文内容,都是很有用的。

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